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When identical twins share a placenta (monochorionic) they are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay (disability), especially when there are problems in the shared blood supply in the placenta (this includes conditions like twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence and selective fetal growth restriction).

The incidence of neurodevelopmental delay in the surviving children of these pregnancies and the factors associated with worse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are yet to be established.

The primary research objective is to establish the incidence of adverse neurodevelopment in normal and complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. We plan to recruit pregnancies where the delivery occurred at least one year ago.

When possible, the controls will be matched to the gestational age at delivery. When possible, the controls will be matched to the gestational age at delivery of the cases. Eligible women will be identified by research staff from the TAMBA multiple pregnancy registry. All women identified from the registry will be sent an information leaflet about the study and invited to take part. Those who agree to take part will be asked to sign a consent form, will be asked to complete the Age & Stage Questionnaire 3rd edition (ASQ-3) in respect of their child/children. The ASQ-3 is a parent-completed questionnaire which contains 30 developmental items that are divided into five areas: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving and personal–social.