Year qualified: 1992 BSc. MB BS PhD FRCP

Mr Seal has been a consultant at St George’s since 2003.

Professional memberships

  • Fellow of Royal College of Physicians
  • Recognised by Gender Recognition Panel
  • Member of Society for Endocrinology
  • Member of WPATH


Andrew Daviesa, Walter Pierre Boumanb*, Christina Richardsab, James Barretta, Sheraz Ahmada, Karen Bakerb, Penny Lenihana, Stuart Lorimera, Sarah Murjanb, Nick Mephamb, Sally Robbins-Cherryb, Leighton J. Seala & Linda Stradinsa
Patient satisfaction with gender identity clinic services in the United Kingdom 2013 Sex and Rel Therapy 28(4) 400-18  DOI: 10.1080/14681994.2013.834321

Seal LJ
Male hypogonadism and testosterone replacement therapy 2013 Medicine 41(10)557-562

Sheraz Ahmad, James Barrett, Amal Y. Beaini, Walter Pierre Bouman, Andrew Davies, Helen M. Greener, Penny Lenihan, Stuart Lorimer, Sarah Murjan, Christina Richards, Leighton J. Seal and Linda Stradins
Gender dysphoria services: a guide for general practitioners and other healthcare staff 2013 J Sex and Rel Therapy 28 (3), 172-185

L. J. Seal, S. Franklin, C. Richards, A. Shishkareva, C. Sinclaire and J. Barrett
Predictive Markers for Mammoplasty and a Comparison of Side Effect Profiles in Transwomen Taking Various Hormonal Regimens JCEM 2012 vol. 97 no. 12 4422-4428

Seal LJ
Testosterone Medicine International 2009 37(9) 445-449

Shariff M, Dhillo WS, Seal LJ, Todd JF, Meeran K.
A case of excess growth hormone levels.  Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2005 Apr;(147):34-6.

Abbott CR, Kennedy AR, Wren AM, Rossi M, Murphy KG, Seal LJ, Todd JF, Ghatei MA, Small CJ, Bloom SR.
Identification of hypothalamic nuclei involved in the orexigenic effect of melanin-concentrating hormone.  Endocrinology. 2003 Sep;144(9):3943-9

A.R. Kennedy, J.F. Todd, W.S. Dhillo, L.J. Seal, M.A. Ghatei, C.P. O'Toole, M. Jones, D. Witty, K. Winbome, G. Riley, G. Hervieu, S. Wilson & S.R. Bloom.
Effect of Direct Injection of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone into the Paraventricular Nucleus: Further Evidence for a Stimulatory role in the Adrenal Axis via SLC-l. J Neuroendocrinol 2003 Mar;15(3):268-72.

W.S. Dhillo, C.J. Small, J.V. Gardiner, G.A. Bewick, E.J. Whitworth, P.H. Jethwa, L.J. Seal, M.A. Ghatei, J.P. Hinson and S.R. Bloom
Agouti related protein (AgRP) has an inhibitory paracrine role in the rat adrenal gland
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jan 31;301(1):102-7

Dhillo WS, Small CJ, Stanley SA, Jethwa PH, Seal LJ, Murphy KG, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2002
Hypothalamic interactions between neuropeptide y, agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and alpha- melanocyte-stimulating hormone in vitro in male rats. J Neuroendocrinol 14:725-730

Seal LJ, Small CJ, Dhillo WS, Kennedy AR, Ghatei MA and Bloom SR 2002
Prolactin releasing peptide releases corticotrophin releasing hormone and increases plasma adrenocorticotrophin via the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  Neuroendocrinology 76:70-78.

A M. Wren, C J. Small, C V. Fribbens, N M. Neary, H L. Ward, L J. Seal, M A. Ghatei, SR. Bloom 2002 The Hypothalamic Mechanisms of the Hypophysiotropic Action of Ghrelin Neuroendocrinology 76:316-324

Dhillo WS, Small CJ, Seal LJ, Kim MS, Stanley SA, Murphy KG, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2002 The hypothalamic melanocortin system stimulates the hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal axis in vitro and in vivo in male rats. Neuroendocrinology 75:209-216

Wren AM, Seal LJ, Cohen MA, Brynes AE, Frost GS, Murphy KG, Dhillo WS, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2001 Ghrelin enhances appetite and increases food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:5992

Seal LJ, Small CJ, Dhillo WS, Stanley SA, Abbott CR, Ghatei MA and Bloom SR 2001 Prolactin Releasing Peptide (PrRP) inhibits food intake in male rats via the dorso-medial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) and not the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN).  Endocrinology 142(10)4236-4243. October

Wren AM, Small CJ, Abbott CR, Dhillo WS, Seal LJ, Cohen MA, Batterham RL, Taheri S, Stanley SA, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2001 Ghrelin causes hyperphagia and obesity in rats. Diabetes 50:2540-2547

Edwards CM, Stanley SA, Davis R, Brynes AE, Frost GS, Seal LJ, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2001 Exendin-4 reduces fasting and postprandial glucose and decreases energy intake in healthy volunteers. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281:E155-E161

Stanley SA, Small CJ, Murphy KG, Rayes E, Abbott CR, Seal LJ, Morgan DG, Sunter D, Dakin CL, Kim MS, Hunter R, Kuhar M, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2001 Actions of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide on regulation of appetite and hypothalamo-pituitary axes in vitro and in vivo in male rats. Brain Res 893:186-194

Taheri S, Gardiner J, Hafizi S, Murphy K, Dakin C, Seal L, Small C, Ghatei M, Bloom S 2001 Orexin A immunoreactivity and preproorexin mRNA in the brain of Zucker and WKY rats. Neuroreport 12:459-464

Seal LJ, Small CJ, Kim MS, Stanley SA, Taheri S, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR. 2000 Prolactin Releasing Peptide (PrRP) Stimulates Luteinizing Hormone (LH) And Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Via A Hypothalamic Mechanism In Male Rats.  . Endocrinology 141(5): 1909-12.

Kim MS, Small CJ, Stanley SA, Morgan DGA, Seal LJ, Kong WM, Edwards C M, Abusnana S, Sunter D, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR 2000. The central melanocortin system affects the hypothalamo-pituitary thyroid axis and may mediate the effects of leptin.. J.C.I. 105:1005-11.

Kim MS, Rossi M, Abusnana S, Sunter D, Small CJ, Morgan DG, Edwards CM, Heath MM, Stanley SA, Seal L, Bhatti LJ, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. 2000  Anatomical Localisation of Agouti-related Peptide and Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone on the regulation of Food Intake. Diabetes 49:177-82.

Taheri S, Sunter D, Dakin C, Moyes S, Seal L, Gardiner J, Rossi M, Ghatei M, Bloom S 2000 Diurnal variation in orexin A immunoreactivity and prepro-orexin mRNA in the rat central nervous system. Neurosci Lett 279:109-112

Stanley SA, Small CJ, Kim MS, Heath MM, Seal LJ, Russell SH, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR  1999 Agouti related peptide (Agrp) stimulates the hypothalamo pituitary gonadal axis in vivo & in vitro in male rats. Endocrinology 140:5459-5462